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Lancia - Istorijat
Autoru Poruka
 Tema posta: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:23 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider


Lancia je ovaj atrkativni spider po imenu Aurelia B24 predstavila na Brussel Motorshow-u davne 1955. godine.

Kao što samo ime govori ovaj spider je bio zasnovan na Aureliji, ali je imao znatno kraću šasiju i potpuno izmjenjen oblik karoserije.


Za dizajn je naravno, ┼íto je i primjetno, bio zadu┼żen Pininfarina, te se ovaj spider do danas smatra jednim od njegovih najboljih dizajnerskih uradaka. Ovaj model je znatno pomogao postizanju njegove reputacije, te je kao ┼íto je poznato od 60-ih godina bio zadu┼żen za dizajn skoro svakog serijskog Ferrarija.
Interesantne linije vrata na Spideru su se kasinje pojavljivale na kabrioletima koje je dizajnirao Pinifarina, a najbolji primjer je svakako Ferrari 250 GT California.


Spider naravno nije plijenio samo svojim prelijepim izgledom, nego i voznim osobinama. Srce Lancia Aurelia B24 Spidera je bio 2.4 litreni V6 agregat, koji se ugra─Ĺivao i u ostale Aurelije. Ovo nije bio prvi serijski V6 iz Lancije jer je tu titulu ponio V ┼íestak zapremine 1649 kubna centimetra koji se ugra─Ĺivao u Lambdu.
Spider je poprili─Źno nepoznat automobil zbog veoma ograni─Źenog broja proizvedenih primjeraka, ali svojim voznim i dizajnerskim kvalitetima sasvim ravnopravno stoji rame uz rame legendama iz 50-ih godina, poput Jaguara XK i Healeya.


Spider je 1956. godine zamijenjen kabrioletskom verzijom koja je imala izmijenjenau karoseriju, a najupe─Źatljiviji su bili prednja karambloka ura─Ĺena iz jednog komada, nove kvake na vratima te ravnije prednje staklo.
Sada je Lancia Aurelia B24 Spider veoma rijedak prizor, a u svoje vrijeme je bila skuplja od konkurencije te je tako i dan danas.


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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:24 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Ako su nekada┼ínji modeli Alfa Romea predstavljali umanjene Ferrarije, manje snage i, naravno, jeftinije, ali izuzetnih performansi i beskompromisnog pona┼íanja na drumu, za Lancie se mo┼że re─çi da su bili mali Maseratiji - tako─Ĺe sjajnih karakteristika ali znatno udobniji, uz daleko diskretniju pojavu. Maserati, izvajan samim vetrom, i aristokratska Lancia proizvodili su automobile elegantnih i fluidnih linija, koje ─Źovek mora dobro da osmotri da bi uvideo svu lepotu i jednostavnost dizajna. Za razliku od razmetljivog Alfa Romea, Lancia je bila automobil za ljude koji su vrline svog vozila ljubomorno ─Źuvali samo za sebe, ljude kojima je prefinjen stil bio ispred atrakcije. A atrakciju je i Lancia svakako umela da pru┼żi. Jedan od tipi─Źnih modela sa po─Źetka zlatnog doba italijanske, a mo┼żda i svetske auto-industrije jeste Lancia Aurelia.
Lancia Aurelia je predstavljena 1950. godine na torinskom salonu automobila i u tada┼ínjoj ponudi ovog proizvo─Ĺa─Źa bila je predvi─Ĺena kao zamena za model Aprilia. I postala je to, ali i mnogo vi┼íe. Aurelia je predstavljena sa potpuno novim V6 motorom koji je ujedno bio i prvi motor te konfiguracije serijski ugra─Ĺivan u neko vozilo. Tako─Ĺe, tu je bila i nova ┼íasija sa nezavisnim zadnjim ogibljenjem, a zbog bolje raspodele mase vozila spojnica, menja─Źka kutija (manuelna ─Źetvorostepena) i diferencijal bili su sme┼íteni u zajedni─Źkom ku─çi┼ítu na zadnjoj osovini. Ko─Źnice su bile dobo┼íi na obe osovine, s tim ┼íto su na zadnjoj osovini bili postavljeni sa unutra┼ínje strane poluosovina, do diferencijala. Jo┼í jedna veoma zna─Źajna stavka je bila i znatna upotreba aluminijuma u izradi novog modela: vrata, poklopac motora, i mnogi drugi delovi bili su izra─Ĺeni od ovog metala, ┼íto je doprinelo smanjenju ukupne te┼żine vozila.

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:25 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Proizvodnja je otpo─Źela modelom B10 berlina, limuzinom sa ─Źetvoro vrata, opremljenom motorom od 1754 ccm koji je razvijao maksimalnih 56 KS na 4000 o/min. Me─Ĺutim, ta prva verzija je pretrpela kritike na ra─Źun performansi, te je ve─ç 1951, posle proizvedenog 5451 primerka B10, predstavljen model B21 berlina, koji je bio poja─Źana verzija modela B10: naime, model B21 je posedovao motor od 1991 ccm zapremine koji je razvijao solidnih 70 KS. Ali te iste godine Lancia po─Źinje da pokazuje za ┼íta je sve njen novi koncept sposoban i pojavljuje se model koji je proslavio Aureliu. Pojavljuje se B20 GT coupe.

Aurelia B20 GT coupe je bila delo dizajnera ku─çe Ghia i u prvo vreme se proizvodila u Pininfarininim pogonima. Imala je ne┼íto skra─çenu B10 ┼íasiju i motor od 2 litra poja─Źan na 75 KS. Ubrzo, nakon proizvedenih 500 primeraka, izmenjen je polo┼żaj ventila i pove─çana je kompresija, ┼íto je rezultiralo dobijanjem celih 80 KS. Uz poja─Źan motor dolazio je i sna┼żniji ko─Źioni sistem i ne┼íto smanjena udaljenost vozila od tla. Ni vizuelni aspekt nije zaboravljen, tako da je instrument-tabla blago redizajnirana, uz dodatne hromirane detalje na karoseriji ali i u enterijeru. Me─Ĺutim, to je jo┼í uvek bilo daleko od maksimalnih potencijala koje je ovaj model, a naro─Źito novi V6 motor, mogao da pru┼żi, kako ─çe se kasnije ispostaviti.
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Limuzinska varijanta (berlina) ponovo je unapre─Ĺena 1952. godine. Posle 3780 komada modela B21 motor je dobio pobolj┼íanu bregastu osovinu i dvostruki Weberov karburator, ┼íto je snagu motora podiglo na, za ono vreme, veoma dobrih 90 KS pri 5000 o/min. Tako je nastao model B22 berlina. I enterijer je modifikovan na isti na─Źin kao kod B20 GT coupe. Te godine pojavljuje se i B15, koji je bio produ┼żena verzija modela B21. Proizveden je u seriji od samo 81 primerka, a odlikovalo ga je me─Ĺuosovinsko rastojanje pove─çano za skoro 200mm, i dvolitarski motor ?ugu┼íen? na svega 65 KS, dok je karoseriju proizvodio Bertone.


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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:25 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
1953. godina donosi novu, tre─çu coupe varijantu. U pitanju je poznati B20 GT coupe, ali sa ozbiljnom evolucijom V6 motora pove─çanog na ─Źitavih 2451ccm i respektabilnih 118 KS. Velika pobolj┼íanja na pogonskom agregatu bila su pra─çena neznatnim stilskim usavr┼íavanjima, ali i ponovnim problemima. Naime, posle prvobitnih kritika upu─çenih nejakom motoru (B10), in┼żenjeri Lancie su uvideli da je ogibljenje nedoraslo da sada ve─ç svih 118 rasnih grla zadr┼żi na putu, ┼íto ─çe uskoro biti re┼íeno, a jo┼í jedna zna─Źajna promena bilo je prebacivanje upravlja─Źa na levu stranu. Ovo je ujedno i poslednja godina pravih promena na B20, jer su naknadne serije donosile samo vi┼íe luksuza uz pove─çanu te┼żinu, a motori su ─Źak izgubili ne┼íto snage. Naredna serija, predstavljena 1956. godine, raspolagala je sa samo 110 KS, da bi poslednja, ┼íesta serija, razvijala 112 KS.
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Slede─ça, sa stanovi┼íta tehnike mo┼żda i najbitnija godina u produkciji Aurelie, bila je 1954. Te godine je, posle ukupno 1074 vozila koja su napustila pogone gospodina Vicenza Lancie, B22 zamenjen modelom B12. Model B12 berlina je doneo mnoge promene, a jedna od najzna─Źajnijih je bila novokonstruisana zadnja osovina po ?De Dion? sistemu, primenjena u ─Źitavoj gami, koja je znatno unapredila pona┼íanje automobila u vo┼żnji i u─çutala kriti─Źare. Zatim je tu bio i efikasniji filter za ulje, kao i blok motora izliven od nove legure. Sva ta pobolj┼íanja pratilo je mno┼ítvo izmenjenih detalja: redizajnirani farovi i zadnja svetla, vetrobrani na bo─Źnim staklima? Tako─Ĺe, zna─Źajna promena je bilo uvo─Ĺenje motora zapremine 2266 ccm od 87 KS u osnovnu limuzinsku verziju.


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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:26 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
─îesta praksa mnogih proizvo─Ĺa─Źa tog vremena bila je proizvodnja samo ┼íasija sa motorom i ostalim tehni─Źkim sklopovima, ali bez karoserije i enterijera. Ove varijante bile su namenjene malim manufakturama, ali i ozbiljnim karoseristima i njihovim pogonima, koji su pu┼ítali ma┼íti na volju i na gotovu osnovu postavljali najrazli─Źitije forme, ponekad samo stilske ve┼żbe, a nekad i prave izazove za konkurenciju. Poznato je da je mediteranski temperament (sa─Źinjen od hedonizma, strasti i bu─Źnih ┼íarenih uli─Źica) izrodio apsolutno sve najzna─Źajnije dizajnere savremenog doba, koji bi se, da su ┼żiveli nekoliko vekova ranije, danas smatrali vrhunskim umetnicima, te je stoga jasno da su i ┼íasije Lancie nosile talenat gotovo bezbrojnih italijanskih majstora proporcija.

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Lancia je jo┼í 1950. godine, paralelno sa predstavljanjem Aurelie, po─Źela proizvodnju njenih ┼íasija za ovu namenu. Modeli ┼íasija nose oznake godina kada su izba─Źene na tr┼żi┼íte. Najva┼żnija odlika ovih ┼íasija je bio pove─çan raspon izme─Ĺu osovina, a prve verzije su bile B50 i B51 koje su se razlikovale samo po prenosnim odnosima. Kasnije dolaze B52 i B53, sa motorom od dva litra radne zapremine, slede B55 i B56, proizvedene u malom broju, i sa ?De Dion? zadnjom osovinom, a kuriozitet je B60, ┼íasija proizvedena u samo jednom primerku. ┼áasiju Aurelie su iskoristile mnoge dizajnerske ku─çe, me─Ĺu kojima su svakako najpoznatije Pininfarina, Bertone, Vignale i naravno Ghia, ujedno tvorac fabri─Źkog modela GT coupe. Jednu od najupe─Źatljivijih karoserija nacrtao je studio Pininfarina, a u pitanju je futuristi─Źki koncept PF2000.
Proizvodnja Lancie Aurelie u varijanti berlina obustavljena je 1955. godine, dok su coupe i convertible silazili sa pokretnih traka jo┼í tri godine. Ukupna produkcija posle osam godina proizvodnje iznosi, uklju─Źuju─çi ┼íasije, nepunih 17000 primeraka. Lancia Aurelia, naro─Źito u svojim atraktivnijim verzijama, danas je rado vi─Ĺen gost mnogobrojnih evropskih i svetskih skupova oldtajmera i ozbiljan rival u egzibicionim relijima veterana. Njen dizajn i naprednu tehniku po┼ítuju svi, mnogi su op─Źinjeni njenim proporcijama.


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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:27 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Lambda

Presented for the first time in 1922 the Lambda incorporated numerous technical innovations and is still hailed as one of the significant models in the history of the automobile. The biggest single innovation, and one which was copied by all car manufacturers around the world, was the adoption of a load-bearing body and the deletion of the separate chassis. Another first was the use of independent front suspension. The engine was also novel, using a cast-aluminium engine block, a narrow-angle V4 layout and high (for the period) engine speeds.
The first cars were almost all bodied in-house by Lancia, the new load-bearing body reducing the scope for the coachbuilders, although a few did make some attempts. The first four series' saw small improvements such as new pistons, different windscreen designs and a change in supplier of the electrical system. The fifth series saw the adoption of a four-speed gearbox whilst the sixth series used a stretched wheelbase and was also produced as a chassis for the coachbuilders.
The seventh series saw an increased capacity engine producing 10bhp more, and was produced with both the longer and shorter wheelbases, a feature also used in the following eighth series. The latter also received an even larger and more powerful engine to offset the ever increasing weight. This was the last production model and they ceased to be built in 1931.
Lambda's were also used extensively in motorsport in various guises, mostly by private entries, albeit supported by the factory.
Approximate production numbers :
Series I to V : 4,200
Series VI : 1,300
Series VII : 1,300
Series VIII and IX : 4,403
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Engine-2119cc (75x120mm) V4 sohc with 49bhp @ 3,250rpm 2370cc (79,37x120mm) V4 sohc with 59bhp @ 3,250rpm 2568cc (82,55x120mm) V4 sohc with 69bhp @ 3,500rpm
Suspension-front : Independent sliding pillar rear : solid axle with leaf springs wheelbase : 3100mm or 3420mm depending on variant
Brakes-mechanically operated drums on all four wheels
Gearbox-initially 3 then 4 speed manual

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:28 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Dilambda

The Dilambda was born as a project for the US market, to be built at a new facility in that country, but when the entire venture collapsed the car was modified for the European market and emerged in 1928. Returning to a chassis construction, albeit with innovative features such as the structural fuel tank, the Dilambda used a new 4-litre V8 engine. The independent front suspension used a system similar to the Lambda.
Three wheelbases were used during the life of the Dilambda. Initially 3480mm this was shortened to 3290mm in the second series, but another version with a 3475mm wheelbase was then added. The cars were continually improved through the years of production with changes to the transmission, brakes, instrumentation, controls and together with the large number of different bodies fitted by various coachbuilders this meant that virtually no two cars were identical.
The Dilambda was a large car, the finished vehicle rarely weighing less than two tons, and was built in correspondingly small numbers. The total production was around 1,700 (1,000 first series and 700 second series) from 1928 to 1938.
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Engine-3956cc (79.37x100mm) V8 sohc with 100bhp @ 3,800rpm
Suspension-front : Independent sliding pillar rear : solid axle with leaf springs wheelbase : 3480mm, 3290mm or 3475mm depending on variant
Brakes-mechanically operated drums on all four wheels
Gearbox-4 speed manual
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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:29 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Astura & Artena

With the Dilambda meeting the demand for a large vehicle, Lancia went about developing a new smaller vehicle, to be available both as a base model and a more luxurious model, sharing the main basic layout. The result was the Artena (base model) and the Astura (luxurious model). The resulting common chassis drew heavily on the design of the preceding Lambda and Dilambda, albeit with a sensible dose of cost saving measures. The front and rear suspension also followed the same basic layout as those models.
For the Artena it was decided to use a much developed version of the old V4 with numerous major modifications such as the adoption of a chain drive for the camshaft. Significantly, it was mounted using silentblocks, which drastically reduced the vibrations passed into the chassis. The Astura, on the other hand, got a simplified and reduced capacity version of the existing V8.
With time the number of variants increased, with different wheelbases a larger engine for the Astura (from the third series). With the cessation of production of the Dilambda in 1938 the Astura took over as the top-of-the-range Lancia and became more luxurious, whilst the Artena became more utilitarian given the poor financial conditions of the times. The Astura became a favourite of the coachbuilders and many, many different versions were built by almost all of the leading names.
Production volumes :
Astura : Series I & II : 1,246; Series III & IV : 1,665
Artena : Series I & II : 3,020; Series III : 2,040; Series IV : 507

Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Engine-Astura : 2604cc (69,85x85mm) V8 sohc with 72bhp @ 4,000rpm 2973cc (74,61x85mm) V8 sohc with 82bhp @ 4,000rpm Artena : 1927cc (82,55x90mm) V4 with 55bhp @ 4,000rpm later with 51bhp @ 3,800rpm
Suspension-front : Independent sliding pillar rear : solid axle with leaf springs wheelbase : Astura : 3177mm, 3100mm, 3330mm or 3475mm depending on variant Artena : 2990mm, 2950mm, 3140mm or 3180mm depending on variant
Brakes-mechanically operated drums on all four wheels some later cars had hydraulically operated drums
Gearbox-4 speed manual

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:29 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Augusta

The first 'small' Lancia designed to be produced in large volumes, the Augusta was first shown to the public in 1932. Returning to a true load-bearing bodyshell, where even the roof was part of the structure, the B-pillars were also omitted. A chassis version was also produced for the coachbuilders from 1934. The engine was a new, small capacity V4.
Although officially no series' were designated, various modifications and improvements were incorporated, such as the intoduction on 1934 of a version 'Lusso' with a more luxurious trim, spoked wheels, two-tone paint and other details. This only lasted for a short while before the two versions were again unified, the result mixing details from both versions.
Production of the Augusta was also undertaken at a new factory in France, near Paris, from 1934 to 1938. The car was known as the Belna but was identical in almost every respect to the Italian built cars. Chassis' were also built their for the French coachbuilders.
Total production, which ceased in 1937 was around 20,000 cars and chassis'. Of these, around 2,500 cars and 600 chassis' were produced in France.
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Engine-1196cc (69,85x78mm) V4 with 35bhp @ 4,000rpm
Suspension-front : Independent sliding pillar rear : solid axle with leaf springs wheelbase : 2650mm
Brakes-hydraulically operated drums on all four wheels
Gearbox-4 speed manual

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:30 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Lancia Aprilia

First seen in 1936, with production beginning the following year, the Aprilia broke new ground in several ways. Designed partially in the Turin Polytechnic wind tunnel, giving a drag coefficient of 0.47, it was one of the first mass produced cars to 'recognise' aerodynamics. Independent rear suspension was unusual for the time, and many features were utilised to keep the overall car compact, and the weight low. The body was a pillarless monocoque with four doors, powered by a narrow angle V4 engine of 1352cc capacity and generating 47bhp.
In 1939 the second series Aprilia was introduced, with a larger 1486cc engine producing 48bhp. A number of very small detail changes were also made, and the 'Lusso' specification of the first series became strandard on the second series cars including such items as the instrument panel.
Production continued until 1949, by which time 20,082 cars (and 7,554 chassis) had been built in Turin. A smaller number, around 700 (including both cars and chassis) were built in Lancia's factory in France.
Apart from the standard cars, Lancia built a 'chassis' for the many Italian (and other) coachbuilders to use. This featured a lengthened wheelbase, up by 100mm to 2850mm. Pininfarina built both saloons and cabriolets on this longer chassis for Lancia, as well as the 'Aerodinamica' two seat coupes. Other coachbuilders which produced Aprilia based cars included Ghia, Stabilimenti Farina, Zagato, Viotti, Bertone, Vignale, Touring, Castagna and a variety of overseas companies.
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Engines-1352cc (72x82mm) V4 with 47bhp @ 4,300rpm 1486cc (74.61x85mm) V4 with 48bhp @ 4,300rpm
Suspension-front : Sliding pillar rear : independent with single transverse leaf spring wheelbase : 2750mm track (front/rear) : 1st series : 1236mm/1266mm 2nd series : 1262mm/1292mm
Brakes-hydraulic on all four wheels (rear inboard) handbrake operating on the rear
Gearbox-4 speed manual
Steering-Worm and sector
Kerb weight-series I :880kg; series II : 950kg

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:31 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Lancia Ardea

The Ardea was introduced in 1939 as a new 'luxury' utility model, following the style of the bigger Aprilia. The external design was very similar to its bigger brother, as was the V4 concept for the engine, whilst the technical solutions were rather simpler, especially the rear suspension and the lack of an openable boot for luggage. Conflict halted production, which was restarted in 1945. Second series cars introduced a 12V (rather than the 6V of the earlier model) electrical system, whilst the third series, produced from 1948, used a five-speed gearbox. The fourth series saw the use of aluminium alloy for the cylinder head and an increase in power to 30bhp.
Despite the lack of a commercially available chassis for the coachbuilders (one was developed but never put into production) a few variants of the Ardea were built by Zagato and Pinin Farina amongst others.
The Ardea was also built in commercial variants, a taxi, a small truck (camioncino) and a van (furgoncino). Manufacture continued up until 1953 when it was replaced by the Appia. A total of around 22,000 vehicles were produced.
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive
Engine-903cc (65x68mm) sohc 20┬░ V4 with 28,8bhp @ 4,600rpm (later 30bhp)
Suspension-front : Sliding pillar rear : live axle with leaf springs wheelbase : 2440mm (Taxi : 2950mm)(Furgoncino & Camioncino : 2500mm) front track : 1162mm (Taxi, Furgoncino & Camioncino : 1286mm) rear track : 1180mm (Taxi : 1280mm)(Furgoncino & Camioncino : 1320mm)
Brakes-hydraulically operated drums on all four wheels
Gearbox-4 speed manual (later 5 speed)
Steering-Worm and sector
Kerb weight-series I : 780kg
Identification
The berlina's were all Tipo 250, the Taxi was Tipo 450, the Furgoncino Tipo 550 and the Camioncino Tipo 650. The chassis intended to be made available to the carrozzeria was the Tipo 350.

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:32 pm 
Drug ─îlan
Drug ─îlan
Lancia Appia

The replacement for the Ardea, the Appia was launched in 1953. A four door (pillarless) design with a new V4 (approx 10deg) engine of 1090cc and producing 38bhp, the Appia retained the standard Lancia sliding pillar suspension at the front and had a live axle with leaf springs and telescopic dampers at the rear.
In 1956 the second series was introduced. This had a noticeably different external style, with a more pronounced boot and more vertical rear window. The wheelbase was also extended by 30mm and the power was increased to 43bhp. Inside, the individual front seats were replaced by a single bench seat.
The third series was released in 1959 and again incorporated a different exterior, this time focussing around a new front end. The traditional shield shaped grille had gone and was replaced by a new horizontal grille and lower bonnet line. The engine also increased in power again, up to 48bhp.
Three other variants were also produced by Lancia, the furgoncino, a small van, the camioncino, a pick-up truck and the autolettiga, an ambulance.
Several coup├ęs were built by Zagato on the basis of the Appia. The first was a one-off shown at the 1956 Turin Motorshow (and known as 'the camel') which also competed in the Mille Miglia the following year. Production models using the standard wheelbase were the GTZ (from 1957 with 53bhp) and the GTE (from 1958 with 60bhp) whilst the 'Sport' had a shorter wheelbase (2350mm, from 1961 with 60bhp). All three cars had different bodystyles and were built in small numbers (a few dozen GTZ's, 521 GTE's and 200 'Sport's).
Other variants of the Appia included a coupe by Pininfarina, a convertible by Vignale and a giardinetta (or estate) by Viotti.
Production of the Appia ceased in 1963.
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal V4 engine at the front with rear wheel drive
Suspension-front : Sliding pillar rear : live axle with leaf springs and telescopic dampers wheelbase : 2480mm (srsI); 2510mm (srs II and III) front track : 1178mm (srs I and II); 1180mm (srs III) rear track : 1182mm (all)
Brakes-hydraulic on all four wheels handbrake operating on the rear
Gearbox-4 speed manual
Steering-Worm and sector
Kerb weight-series I : 820kg series II : 900kg series III : 920kg

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:32 pm 
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Lancia Flaminia

To replace the Aurelia, Lancia developed the Flaminia, first shown as a prototype at the 1956 Turin Motorshow. The production car emerged the following year at the Geneva Show. The basic chassis was an evolution of the Aurelia unit, shortened by some 80mm, coupled with an all new engine, still a 60? V6 but now displacing 2458cc and producing 102bhp. Pininfarina were contracted for the styling, which was to follow their earlier concept cars, the Floride series, also based on an Aurelia chassis. Significant differences from the previous model included the front suspension which adopted unequal length wishbones with coil springs whilst a de Dion setup was used at the rear. As on the Aurelia, the clutch and gearbox were situated at the rear whilst the former car's drum brakes were substituted by discs after the first 500 Flaminias had left the production line.
In 1961 the engine gained 8bhp thanks to a different carburettor, but sales were poor, a situation which continued to deteriorate, despite the arrival of an increased capacity engine in 1962. This was a 2775cc unit which produced 125bhp, a figure still relatively modest given the weight of the car, a generous 1490kg. Production continued until 1970, but only 599 of the bigger engined cars were sold by then. A total of around 3349 smaller engined saloons were built, production ceasing in 1963.
Four principle variants were built, coup├ęs by Pininfarina, Touring and Zagato and an open-topped version by Touring.
Pininfarina produced the Coupe with a wheelbase shortened by 120mm and an engine producing 119bhp. This was a two-door four-seater with styling heavily based on that of the Floride II.
Carrozzeria Touring produced the GT with a wheelbase shortened by 350mm (from that of the berlina) and the same 119bhp engine as the Coup├ę. This was strictly a two seater and utilised much aluminium in the bodywork to reduce the weight.
Zagato produced the Sport, released in 1958, another two seater with an all aluminium body and the 119bhp engine.
Pininfarina also produced four Presidenziale cars in 1960 for use by the Italian government during state visits. These has a wheelbase stretched by 480mm.
Carrozzeria Touring also produced the Convertibile which was a GT without the roof, a hard top being optional.
When the 110bhp engine was released in 1961, a version for the Police was developed using triple carburettors which generated 140bhp. This engine then became available in the GT, Convertible and Sport models.
The Coupe also received a boost in 1962 when it gained a single triple-barrel carburettor which gave it 128bhp. That year also saw the addition to the Touring products of the GTL, a 2+2 version of the GT with a 80mm longer wheelbase.
The revised 2.8-litre engine was also tuned for use in the various variants, giving 136bhp in the Coup├ę and 150bhp in the Sport, Convertibile, GT and GTL.
1964 saw the cessation of production of the Convertible and Sport, the latter being replaced by the Super Sport 2.8 3C which, with its 152bhp engine, continued in production until 1967, as did the Coupe. In the meantime the GT and GTL ceased being built in 1965.
Approximate production figures are :
Berlina : 2,5-litre : 3349 ; 2.8-litre : 599
Coup├ę : 5284
GT & GTL : 2016
Sport & Super Sport : 599
Convertibile : 847
Technical Details
Driveline-longitudinal engine at front with rear wheel drive transmission mounted at rear
Engines-2458cc (80x81.5mm) 60┬░ V6 ohv with 102-140bhp depending on variant (see above) 2775cc (85x81.5mm) 60┬░ V6 ohv with 129-152bhp depending on variant (see above)
Suspension-front : double wishbone with coil springs and telescopic dampers plus anti-roll bar rear : independent with semi-trailing links, coil springs and telescopic dampers (early cars) rear : de Dion with leaf springs and telescopic dampers wheelbase : 2870mm (Berlina); 2750mm (Coupe); 2520mm (GT, Sport & Convertible); 2600mm (GTL) front track : 1368mm rear track : 1370mm
Brakes-discs on all four wheels (drums on all four wheels on first 500 cars) handbrake operating on the rear
Gearbox-4 speed manual Semiautomatic 'Saxomat' unit available in some models
Steering-Worm and sector
Kerb weight-1430kg (early 2.5 berlina); 1560kg (2.8 berlina) 1490kg (early 2.5 coupe); 1320kg (early GT); 1370kg (early convertible); 1260kg (early sport)

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:37 pm 
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Lancia Flavia and 2000

At the Turin motorshow in November 1960 Lancia showed a new car, the Flavia. With a 1500cc four cylinder horizontally opposed engine (78bhp) driving the front wheels it was a departure from the norm for Lancia. The front suspension consisted of unequal length wishbones and a transverse leaf spring whilst at the rear there was a dead axle located by a Panhard rod, leaf springs and telescopic dampers as well as an anti-roll bar. The brakes were discs all round and a four speed transmission with a column mounted shift was standard.
In 1962 the Coupe, a 2+2 designed and built by Pininfarina and fitted with a 1500cc engine developing 90bhp, was introduced, built on a wheelbase shortened by 170mm and fitted with a floor mounted gearshift. Also in that year Vignale introduced the Convertible, this being a four seater with the same 90bhp engine as the Coupe. Zagato also contributed the Sport, a 2+2 coupe design with an all aluminium body and improved aerodynamics giving it the best performance.
1963 saw the introduction of an 1800cc variant of the same engine. This produced 92bhp in all versions except the Sport where in had 100bhp, soon upped to 105bhp by changing from Solex to Weber carburettors. The saloon was offered with both 1500 (from 1963 actually a 1488cc unit with 80bhp) and 1800 engines whereas the other variants were only available with the 1800. Kugelfischer mechanical injection became on option in 1965 on all the 1800 engines, giving them an extra 10bhp.
In 1967 production of the Sport and Convertible stopped, and a new, redesigned berlina was introduced. This still used the same 1800 and a modified 1500, still 1488cc but with only 76bhp although with better driveability. An LX version also offered power assisted steering.
The Coupe was restyled in 1969, with new front and rear styling, and in that same year the engines were also revised. The 1488cc was increased to 1490cc, the 1800 up to 1816cc and a new 1991cc engine was introduced with 114bhp, or 126bhp with the optional fuel injection. The following year saw some revisions to the 2 litre cars with an improved braking system and power assisted steering as standard.
At the beginning of 1971 the berlina was restyled and relaunched as the 2000 at Venezia. Despite being an evolution of the preceding model, it was visually noticeably different with a completely new front end design where the vertical shield shaped grille was reintroduced. At the Geneva Motorshow of the following year the 2000 IE was introduced, which was fitted with electronic fuel injection (and 125bhp) and a five speed gearbox. The Coupe also became the 2000 Coupe in 1971 and later also gained a Bosch Jetronic fuel injection system to become the 2000 Coupe HF. Thus latter also had a five speed gearbox and alloy wheels as standard.
Production ceased in 1974 after 14,319 examples of the 2000 had been built. Very small numbers of a limousine variant of the Flavia were also built, as was a prototype estate.In 1967 Zagato made a Flavia Coupe prototype.

Technical Details

Engines-1500cc (82x71mm) horizontally-opposed 4 cylinder with 78bhp @ 5200rpm - other variant with 90bhp @ 5800rpm 1488cc (80x74mm) horizontally-opposed 4 cylinder with 80bhp @ 5600rpm 1490cc (77x80mm) horizontally-opposed 4 cylinder with 80bhp @ 5600rpm 1800cc (88x74mm) horizontally-opposed 4 cylinder with 92bhp @ 5200rpm - other variant with 102bhp @ 5200rpm (injection) - other variant with 100bhp @ 5800rpm - other variant with 105bhp @ 5600rpm 1816cc (85x80mm) horizontally-opposed 4 cylinder with 92bhp @ 5200rpm 1991cc (89x80mm) horizontally-opposed 4 cylinder with 114bhp @ 5400rpm - other variant with 115bhp @ 5800rpm - other variant with 126bhp @ 5600rpm (injection) - other variant with 125bhp @ 5800rpm (injection)
Suspension-front : double wishbone with transverse leaf spring and telescopic dampers plus anti-roll bar rear : independent with semi-trailing links, coil springs and telescopic dampers (early cars) rear : dead axle with leaf springs and telescopic dampers plus anti-roll bar wheelbase : 2650mm (berlina); 2480mm (coupe) front track : 1300mm (early cars up to 1971); 1332mm (late cars after 1971) rear track : 1280mm (early cars); 1288mm (late cars)
Brakes-discs on all four wheels vacuum assisted, split hydraulic circuit handbrake operating on the rear
Gearbox-4 speed manual 5 speed manual
Steering-Worm and sector ZF power assistance standard or optional on various later cars
Kerb weight-1190kg (early 1500 berlina); 1160kg (early 1500 coupe) 1235kg (2000 berlina); 1245kg (2000IE berlina); 1200kg (late 2000 coupe)
Performance
Flavia 1.8 (1964)-160 km/h 17.3 sec 37.85 sec 59 m
Flavia 1.8 Coup├ę(1964)-173 km/h 14.7 sec 35.45 sec 66 m

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:41 pm 
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Lancia Fulvia

Introduced at the Geneva Motorshow in 1963, the Fulvia was designed to replace the Appia. Developed from the bigger Flavia, the Fulvia used the same suspension, engine and differential layout and braking system on a shorter wheelbase, although still with the same track as the Flavia. An all new 13? V4 engine was developed, displacing 1091cc and producing 59bhp. The engine, which used a cast iron cylinder block, was tilted at 45? to aid packaging. The drivetrain was mounted on a subframe to which was also attached the front suspension and steering.
Late the following year the first improvement arrived in the shape of twin carburettors and 71bhp in the Fulvia 2C.
Geneva in March 1965 saw a much more significant addition - the coup├ę. Designed in-house at Lancia on a wheelbase some 150mm shorter than the berlina, with a drag coefficient of 0.39, it used a 1216cc engine with 80bhp. January the following year saw the coup├ę HF arrive now with 88bhp and a lighter shell thanks to aluminium doors, bonnet and bootlid.
1967 saw further improvements and additions to the range. The berlina GT arrived with the 1216cc engine and the coup├ę got a new engine, with a different vee angle, displacing 1298cc and generating 87bhp. The latter model was known as the Rallye 1.3, whilst the same engine went into the 1.3HF where it produced 101bhp, replacing the 1.2HF. Later that year the 1216cc engine was replaced throughout the range by a 1231cc variant of the new 1298cc engine.
Developments continued in 1968 when the berlina GTE with the 1298cc engine was introduced and produced alongside the already existing 2C and GT. The Rallye 1.3S got 93bhp, later reduced to 90bhp, whilst the most potent Fulvia ever built, the coup├ę Rallye 1.6HF was released with a 1584cc 11? V4 engine producing 115bhp. An option was also available with 132bhp.
Going back to 1965, Zagato introduced their version, the Sport. This used a coup├ę floorpan and mechanicals with an all new all aluminium body, the 1216cc engine with 80bhp and a mix of coup├ę (dashboard) and new (seats) interior. The mechanicals changed in line with the coup├ę, 1967 saw the 1298cc (87bhp) engine arrive in the Sport 1.3, the 93bhp engine then arrived in the Sport 1.3S (and was later derated to 90bhp as in the coup├ę) and then the 1584cc (115bhp) engine arrived in the Sport 1600. After only a few hundred Sport 1.3's had been built the bodyshell switched to steel, only the doors and bonnet remaining in aluminium, and these later (in 1971) switched to steel as well. Production finished in 1972 after about 7,100 cars had been built.
The second series Fulvia was released in 1969 and replaced all the berlina models. It was mechanically the same as the GTE model, but with a wheelbase 20mm longer, modified external styling and a much improved interior. It was followd in 1970 by the series II coup├ę which gained a five speed gearbox and a few detail design changes. The 1300 and 1600 engines continued.
1973 saw the arrival of the coup├ę 3, which was only available with the 1298cc engine and which continued until production ceased in 1976.

Technical Details

Driveline-longitudinal V4 engine at front with front wheel drive
Engines-818.000 : 1091cc (72x67mm) 12.9┬░ V4 with 59bhp @ 5,800rpm also : 818.100 with 71bhp @ 6,000rpm 818.130 : 1216cc (76x67mm) 12.9┬░ V4 with 80bhp @ 6,000rpm also : 818.140 with 88bhp @ 6,000rpm 818.202 : 1231cc (75x69.7mm) 12.8┬░ V4 with 80bhp @ 6,000rpm 818.282 : 1199cc (74x69.7mm) 12.8┬░ V4 with 79bhp @ 6,000rpm 818.302 : 1298cc (77x69.7mm) 12.8┬░ V4 with 87bhp @ 6,000rpm also : 818.303 with 90bhp @ 6,000rpm and 818.340 with 101bhp @ 6,400rpm 818.540 : 1584cc (82x75mm) 11.3┬░ V4 with 115bhp @ 6,200rpm (132bhp @ 6,600rpm available)
Suspension-front : double wishbone with transverse leaf spring and telescopic dampers plus anti-roll bar rear : dead axle with leaf springs and telescopic dampers wheelbase : 2480mm (berlina srs I); 2500mm (berlina srs II); 2330mm (coup├ę & Sport) front track : 1300mm (berlina srs I); 1390mm (coup├ę Rallye 1.6HF) rear track : 1280mm (berlina srs I);1335mm (coup├ę Rallye 1.6HF)
Brakes-discs on all four wheels (two piston or four piston units at the front) split hydraulic circuit (except early cars) servo assistance on some models handbrake operating on the rear (early cars with separate callipers on disc, later cars with integral drum)
Gearbox-4 speed manual 5 speed manual
Steering-Worm and sector
Kerb weight-1030kg (early berlina); 1060kg (late berlina) 960kg (coup├ę) 915kg (early Sport); 960kg (late Sport)

Performance
Fulvia (1963) 141 km/h 27.8 sec 43.59 sec 60.0 m
Fulvia 2C (1965) 148 km/h 16.9 sec 38.0 sec 51.5 m
Fulvia Coup├ę (1966) 160 km/h 14.0 sec 35.65 sec 58 m

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Re: Lancia - Istorijat
PostPoslato: Sub Nov 15, 2008 10:45 pm 
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Lancia Beta

The Lancia Beta was the first car developed by Lancia after it's purchase by FIAT in 1969. Work started in January 1970 and it was presented for the first time at the Turin motorshow in November 1972 as a berlina (saloon) with 1438cc (90bhp), 1592cc (100bhp) and 1756cc (110bhp) engines which were developments of FIAT's new twin cam engine for the 132. The two box four door body was designed at the Fiat styling centre by Mario Boano since the Lancia studio was already working on the next variant.
In 1973 the Beta Coupe was introduced. This used the same mechanicals as the berlina, but had a shortened wheelbase and new body designed in-house at Lancia. The two engines offered, the 1592cc and 1756cc were also uprated slightly to give 108bhp and 120bhp respectively. The gearbox was fitted with different ratios and equal length driveshafts were employed. Soon after the coupe launch a part-targa part-convertable version was introduced, known as the Spider (Lancia Zagato in the US), which was designed by Pininfarina and built by Zagato. The production process involved taking a coupe bodyshell and modifying it before all the mechanicals were fitted, these being the same as the standard coupe. The performance was thus slightly down due to the extra weight of the Spider.
1974 saw the extension of the Beta range by the addition of 1297cc and LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) powered versions of the berlina.
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In 1975, at the Geneva Motorshow, the Beta range was again supplemented, this time by the HPE (High Performance Estate) and Montecarlo. The former was approximately what we now call a 'lifestyle estate', more a roomy five seater with a hatch than a load-lugging estate car. It used the floorpan (and hence the longer wheelbase) of the berlina, but the front end copied the design of the coupe and there were only two doors.
The Montecarlo was only weakly connected with the Beta family, it had been previously designed (by Pininfarina) as a prototype FIAT (first the X1/8 and later the X1/20) with various engines (including the 2800 V6 from the 130), but in the end the Beta drivetrain (complete engine, clutch, gearbox and diff) was adopted, albeit behind the seats and tilted back slightly. The engine was also enlarged to 1995cc by increasing the stroke, producing 120bhp. The cockpit was reasonably roomy, and there was a quite roomy luggage compartment under the bonnet, the spare wheel being stored next to the engine at the rear. The 'Spider' variant featured an opening roof, really a full size sunroof. It was sold as the Scorpion in the USA, fitted with an emissionised 1756cc unit with only 81bhp. This poor output, combined with an increase in weight of some 30kg meant that the performance in that market was rather disappointing. Various other detail changes were made to meet US legislation such as bumpers and lights (which raised slightly in use).
Yet further removed from the Beta family was the 037 or 'Rally' which was developed from the Montecarlo for use in rallying.
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In 1975 the range was revised. Minor external changes were made to the styling, and the 1995cc engine replaced the 1756cc engine in all models (except in some in the USA). The 1592cc engine was replaced by one displacing 1585cc, whilst the 1438cc engine was discontinued. All the engines were used across the berlina and coupe models - the latter no longer having higher output units.
Small changes continued to be made to the range. In 1976 the 1297cc engine was introduced into the coupe, and from 1978 an automatic gearbox was offered as an option on the 1600 and 2000 cars, whilst all the cars got electronic ignition. A minor facelift was carried out on the coupe, HPE and Spider and the 1297cc engine was enlarged to 1301cc.
The third series berlina entered production in 1979 and included a restyling both inside and out (including the adoption of the 'new' shield shaped grille) and the discontinuation of the 1300 engine. A year later the range was joined by a new design, the Trevi, a conventional three box saloon with a most unconventional dashboard designed by Mario Bellini. This was also the first Beta application of a new fuel injected version of the 2000 engine with 122bhp. In 1981 the fuel injected 2000 engine was added to the coupe and HPE, and power steering became available.
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The Montecarlo suffered from a lack of go in it's US spec (it's primary market) and poor brakes (the front wheels had less weight and servo assistance and tended to lock up too easily, whilst the rear had more weight and no servo). Production was stopped in 1978 and restarted in 1980 (not for the US) with numerous modifications, to improve the braking (bigger discs and no servo), reduce the weight (down by 70kg) and increase the torque (higher compression ratio). Some minor cosmetic work was also carried out, including new wheels, new grille, new wing mirrors and a few other minor changes. It never really took off though, and production ceased in 1981 the same year as the berlina ceased production. In the following year the Spider also stopped being produced.
The ultimate production engine for the Beta family was the Volumex, a 1995cc engine with a supercharger. This was introduced in the Trevi in 1982 with 135bhp and more importantly, considerably more torque. The VX HPE and coupe models were introduced in 1982 and also received a stiffer suspension and improved brakes.
These final versions, the coupe, HPE and Trevi continued in production until 1984.
The Beta family was involved in motorsport in a variety of ways. The Beta Coupe was used in rallying (with the 16V cylinder head from Abarth) and helped Lancia win the World Championship with the higher profile Stratos. The 037 was developed from the Montecarlo, even if very far removed, and achieved many successes in rallying, including one World Championship. And the Montecarlo itself was used with success in endurance racing, the Montecarlo turbo winning two World Championships. In club racing the Beta Coupe proved popular in many countries, and still continues to see action in various club events.

Approximate production volumes were as follows :

Berlina :195,462
Coupe :111,801
HPE :71,258
Trevi :36,784
Spider :9,390
Montecarlo :7,595

Technical Details

Driveline-transverse engine at front with front wheel drive
Suspension-front : MacPherson strut with telescopic dampers and coil springs plus anti-roll bar rear : independent with telescopic dampers and coil springs, twin transverse links and anti-roll bar wheelbase : 2540mm (saloon & HPE) or 2350mm (Coupe & Spider) track (front/rear) Berlina : 1405mm/1390mm
Brakes-front : discs rear : discs calliper piston diameters : 45mm (front), 34mm (rear) handbrake operating on the rear via cable dual hydraulic circuit with servo assistance
Gearbox-5 speed manual 3 speed automatic cable operated clutch disc diameter : 200mm (1300,1400 & 1600), 215mm (1800 & 2000)
Steering-Rack and pinion ZF power assistance on some models
Kerb Weight-early RHD models : Berlina (1600) : 1085kg; Coupe : 990kg; HPE : 1060kg; Spider : 1050kg early US models : Berlina : 1119kg; Coupe : 1088kg Montecarlo : 1040kg (srs I); Scorpion 1070kg; srs II : 970kg

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Performance

Berlina 1600 (1979) 170 km/h 11.1 sec 33.1 sec
Berlina 2000 (1977) 180 km/h 11.2 sec 32.1 sec
HPE 1600 (1977) 174 km/h 33.5 sec
Coupe 1300 (1977) 163 km/h 13 sec 34.8 sec

Tuning

There are three main areas to concentrate on, the engine (and transmission), the brakes and the suspension and then various other details. These three should be done together since they complement each other, not all of one and none of another !
1. The engine.
Before modifying the engine it is worthwhile filling it with a good quality synthetic oil and fitting new spark plugs. An engine oil additive may also be used.
The first improvements are relatively simple. The air filter can be replaced for an aftermarket item which will help the engine breathe more freely, the type which completely replace the original airbox are best, and the exhaust can be replaced for one which will restrict the exit of the gases less. The whole system should be replaced, not just the rear section.
The main modification (outside of taking the engine apart) is to fit a better carburettor(s). A pair of twin 45 DCOE's are a good choice (40's on a 1600 or smaller). Downdraught setups are also possible, but the sidedraught one is to be preferred. A camshaft will also provide a noticeable gain, especially if fitted in conjuction with the carburettor.
Other things to do should include fitting a cold air intake, a large diameter pipe (minimum 5cm) to provide air from outside the engine bay to the air filter. The exhaust manifold can also be lagged with thermal cloth or tape to keep the exhaust gases hotter (and thus reduce back pressure) and also to keep the underbonnet (and hence intake and fuel) temperatures lower.
The high tension leads can also be replaced with performance ones.
Further modifications require the machining of the cylinder headand/or cylinder block (which will not be dealt with here since it is not normally a DIY job) after which it may be worth fitting an oil cooler. If overheating is a problem due to the increased power output then a small hole can also be drilled through the plate in the thermostat. There are a multitude of company's with experience of internal cylinder head modifications for the Lancia twin cam engine, and a 1995cc engine with 45 DCOE's and a gasflowed head should produce over 150bhp.
Regarding the transmission the main requirement is to uprate the clutch to handle the increase in power and torque achieved though the engine modifications. Friction plates can be purchased with improved materials and heavier duty pressure plates are also available. Whilst doing this it is worthwhile lightening the flywheel.
2. The brakes.
Initially it is relatively easy to replace the brake discs with drilled and grooved items, and the pads for a harder compound. The latter should not be too hard (ie no race pads on the road) or they will not function effectively at the normal 'road' operating temperatures. Stainless steel braided flexible hoses will improve the pedal feel and reduce the chance of damage whilst DoT5 fluid (not silicon) will increase the temperature at which it can operate effectively. If the brakes are getting too hot the dustguards can be removed and/or ducts fitted, taking air from behind the front bumper.
If more serious braking is required the next modification would be to increase the disc size. It is possible to use larger discs with a bracket allowing use of the production callipers, or alloy four pot callipers can be fitted.
In order to improve the balance of the car under braking it is desireable to be able to adjust the balance of braking from front to rear (and vice versa). This can be accomplished by fitting a bias valve in the line to the rear brakes, usually in a position so that it can be reached from the drivers seat.
3. The suspension.
The easiest improvement,and the one which will probably bring the single most noticeable change, is to replace the dampers and springs. Fitting lowered springs will improve the cornering, but must be fitted together with shortened throw dampers, or else the springs may unseat ! Top adjustable dampers are compromised, but are good for road and track day cars since it allows the suspension to be adjusted between these two, rather different, requirements. Coil over units add more adjustability and can be purchased outright, or can be made from standard dampers by welding a threaded sleeve to the standard tube.
There are then two other main suspension aims; to reduce the flexiblity in the suspension and to increase the stiffness of the car, both of which aim at more accurate control of the wheel movement. To reduce the flexibility it is possible to fit nylon bushes instead of the normal production rubber items, or if perfection is desired the suspension can be fitted with metallic bearings (rose joints / rod ends). Spherical bearing top mounts can also be used. To stiffen the car it is most popular to fit strut braces. These can be fitted to the front and rear. For more extreme cases a rollcage can be fitted.....
Into this category also fall the choice of wheels and tyres. With an increase in power it can be necessary to fit larger tyres (thus requiring larger wheels) but the temptation to fit the biggest possible should be resisted. Consideration should be given to fitting a wider tyre on the front (since they provide traction and steering) but keeping the standard, or a wider but not as wide as the front, tyre at the rear. This will improve the balance of the car.
4. other things.
Other modifications worth considering include fitment of a shift light (and rev limiter if there is not one as standard), higher power bulbs in the headlights (if you are going to go faster you need to see further) and installation of a quicker steering rack.


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